You have a dockerized application that needs 50+ environment variables that are different based on the execution environment (ie: production, staging, mobile, etc).
The first solution would be to pass them in using the
-e flag. But that can get tedious and is super error prone.. so you make an execution script that wraps it all nicely. Cool.
But wait! That looks a lot like docker compose so what about using that? Now you have compose files. Awesome.
But wait! Now you need to protect the sensitive variables like the Postgres password or your application’s oauth credentials? How do you do that? A great solution for that would be Hashicorp’s Vault and after you put your super secret secrets into the vault, how do you get them out at runtime?
There are many solutions for interacting with vault inside your application directly but since you followed the 12factor design pattern and put everything into your environment its probably going to take a bit of work to rewrite your secrets loading to use the vault directly via your application. And why? You’ve already done the most versatile thing by loading through your environment? Plus, what happens when a new & better wizzbang way of saving and fetching secrets comes out? Then what? Are you going to do all that work again?! No way!
Load the environment at run time from vault. It gives you the flexibility of differing credentials based on runtime environment that are secured by the Vault without the headache of changing your application code or getting locked into a single solution.
Our 50+ environment variables passed in at runtime are reduced to 2 or 3. We will need to pass in the environment (ie: production or staging), the vault token, & maybe the vault server url (although you could just build this into the base container).
The idea here is that we will save our super secret secrets namespaced by runtime environment.
/secret/staging/postgres/password #=> The staging postgres password /secret/production/postgres/password #=> The production postgres password
This way, we can apply the passed in environment to the path and get the correct secret.
You’re going to need a few scripts/libraries. Here are the ones I’ve built (feel free to use them or adapt it).
The Vault Loader
This is a wrapper library for working with the vault that applies some automatic namespacing.
Basically this library adds the ability to run things like
which will fetch the value from vault at
You can also do a
which will write the value to the appropriate key
/secret/development/secret_key #=> secret_value
This library wraps all the path handling for you. We will use this library to create a script we use for loading environment variables.
Vault Environment Script
Now we’ll use that libary to create a CLI for fetching keys.
We would put this script in to a
bin directory and make it executable. Then we could just call it like this:
vaultenv postgres/password and it will return the value from
The Docker Entrypoint
We’ll need a script that we’ll set as the container’s entrypoint that will load the environment and then pass off to a new shell with that environment
This script has a little magic built in but essentially what its doing is verifying the
VAULT_TOKEN is set and then sources a custom environment file and then passes off to whatever arguments are provided.
This will load the custom environment and then run a bash shell inside of it.
We’ll accomplish this as the default for the container by setting the
entrypoint as this script and the
cmd as bash.
ENTRYPOINT [ "with_app_env" ] CMD [ "bash" ]
The Custom Environment File
The final bit is the custom environment file. Inside of it we can use our Vault Environment script to load things:
export PG_USER=$( vaultenv postgres/user ) export PG_PASS=$( vaultenv postgres/password )
Wire it Together
Now we can wire it all together with a Dockerfile. Once we create this container, we would build all of our applications off of this container and like magic, our application containers now only need the 2 required variables (
APP_ENV) at runtime to set everything up!
(For a complete working implementation of this solution, Check out my example project)